英国:从“开放银行”到“开放金融”

翻译自:https://www.out-law.com/en/articles/2019/january/uk-moving-from-open-banking-to-open-finance/

原文标题:UK moving from ‘open banking’ to ‘open finance’

“企业和消费者有望对他们的金融数据拥有更大的控制权,这意味着他们将有能力进入创新的新服务,因为英国将进入一个开放金融体系。”——2019年1月14日

Luke Scanlon来自Pinsent Masons,一家专门从事金融科技行业业务的律师事务所,同时也是outlaw.com背后的律师所。在英国开放银行体系通过立法的一周年后,他作出了上述预测。

开放的银行体系允许第三方连接到银行系统,访问支付数据,并利用这些信息向企业和消费者提供自己的服务。只有在满足严格的条件下,包括客户同意数据共享的情况下,以及遵守网络安全标准的情况下,才允许第三方访问。


9家主要银行被要求促进英国的开放银行业务,一个开放银行实施实体(OBIE)被要求开发技术标准,允许第三方通过Open API访问。

虽然开放银行制度于2018年1月13日正式生效,但一些银行获得了实施新框架的延期许可,而第三方合作公司在开发访问数据的软件和提供新服务方面也面临延误。


根据OBIE的数据,英国有100家受监管的开放银行服务提供商,包括67家第三方提供商和33家账户提供商。截至今年1月8日,共有17家第三方产品与服务已经上线。


Scanlon提到,(开放银行标准发布)一周年是一个很好的时机,既可以回头看银行业在实现开放银行方面既有的进展,也可以反思业界距离拥抱开放银行变革之路还有多长。根据英国《金融时报》的一份报告,由设计和技术公司Splendid Unlimited对2000名消费者进行的一项调查发现,在英国,只有四分之一的人听说过开放银行,其中只有五分之一的人理解开放银行意味着什么。

斯坎伦说:“尽管1月13日有一些象征意义,但它确实不应该被用来衡量开放银行业的成功,因为它只是众多重要日子之一。”“今年将是意义重大的一年,因为我们在理解何时适用强有力的客户认证规则、何时不适用以及如何有效实施这些规则方面取得了进展。”


“英国已经把目光投向支付数据之外,考虑到了‘开放金融’的未来,首先是养老金数据的开放。”然而,争端解决仍然是一个关键问题,需要以一致的方式解决,国际标准化也是如此。


英国竞争与市场管理局(CMA)在发现零售业务和消费者经常账户市场的竞争问题后,发布了一项命令,推动了银行业的开放改革。随后,英国的“开放银行倡议”(open banking initiative)扩大了适用范围,适用于u与欧洲PSD2相同类型的支付账户。

OBIE发言人Imran Gulamhuseinwala认为,银行对开放银行业的态度已经发生了变化。”银行已经非常坚定地将开放银行视为一种有机会进行竞争和创新的机会。尽管面临许多挑战和雄心勃勃的时间表,他们仍努力实施(开放银行)标准。然而,我们已经看到了一些由开放银行推动的新技术的令人印象深刻的早期迹象——尽管我们的路线图刚刚走到一半,未来还有很多。”


“显然,有迹象表明正在出现一个充满活力、生机勃勃和正在发展的生态系统- -这个生态系统正迅速变得更加复杂和扩大其覆盖面。但随着我们进入开放银行发展轨道的视野,这一趋势将在2019年显著加快……我们预计,这一生态系统将以更大的势头和步伐发展,尤其是随着我们看到该标准的实施获得更大的一致性,以及市场出现更大的创新,”他表示。

Gulamhuseinwala表示,OBIE的重点是在2019年提供“增强的用户体验”。
古拉姆胡塞因瓦拉说:“我们今天所取得的进展无疑是朝着正确的方向迈出了一步,但还没有达到我们所期望的高标准。”“然而,我有信心,2019年3月之后,我们的标准(第三版)的实施,将带来一个支持移动的、顺滑的客户体验旅程。”


英国金融市场管理局(CMA)开放银行业主管比尔•罗伯茨(Bill Roberts)表示,英国是“开放银行业的全球先锋”,澳大利亚、香港和新加坡等国家也在实施类似改革。
罗伯茨说:“我们相信,采用开放银行技术和流程(特别是数据、安全和应用程序接口的通用和开放标准)有潜力通过允许新的、创新的银行服务提供商进入市场来彻底改变银行市场。”“开放银行在过去12个月里已经取得了巨大进展,尽管它仍处于推出的初期阶段。”


“我们很高兴现在有大约200家机构在这方面工作,包括一些大型科技公司,我们预计这项技术将改变银行的运作方式,人们在未来的几年里将通过更便捷的方式管理他们的资金。”


原文:

UK moving from ‘open banking’ to ‘open finance’

Businesses and consumers can expect to gain greater control over how their financial data is used, meaning they will be able to access innovative new services as the UK moves to a system of ‘open finance’, an expert has said.14 Jan 2019

Luke Scanlon of Pinsent Masons, the law firm behind Out-Law.com, who specialises in fintech law, made the prediction after the first anniversary of the introduction of the UK’s ‘open banking’ regime passed on Sunday.

The open banking regime allows third parties to link into the systems of banks to access payments data and provide their own services to businesses and consumers using that information. Third party access is only enabled if strict conditions are met, including where customers have given their consent to the data sharing and if standards on cybersecurity are adhered to.

Nine major banks have been obliged to facilitate open banking in the UK, and an Open Banking Implementation Entity (OBIE) has been tasked with developing technical standards that enable third party access via open ‘application programming interfaces’ (APIs).

While the open banking regime officially took effect on 13 January 2018, some banks were given extensions to implement the new framework, while third parties have also faced delays in developing software to access the data and in delivering new services.

According to the OBIE, there are 100 regulated providers of open banking service in the UK, including 67 third party providers and 33 account providers. As of 8 January this year, 17 third parties are live with customers.

Scanlon said the first anniversary is a good time to reflect both on how far industry has come in delivering open banking as well as how far there is to go before there is widespread adoption. A survey of 2,000 consumers by design and technology company Splendid Unlimited found just one in four people in the UK have heard of open banking and just one in five of those people understand what open banking means or entails, according to a Financial Times report.

“While 13 January has some symbolism it really should not be used as a measure of success of open banking as it is just one of a number of significant dates,” Scanlon said. “This year will be a significant year as progress is made in understanding when strong customer authentication rules apply, when they will not and how those rules can be effectively implemented.”

“The UK is already looking beyond payments data with a future of ‘open finance’ in mind, in the first instance enabled by open access to pensions data. Dispute resolution, however, remains a key issue that needs to be resolved in a consistent way, as does international standardisation,” he said.

The open banking reforms were prompted by an order made by the UK’s Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) after it identified competition concerns in the retail business and consumer current account markets. The open banking initiative in the UK was subsequently broadened in scope to apply to the same types of payment accounts that the EU’s second Payment Services Directive (PSD2) applies to.

Trustee of the OBIE, Imran Gulamhuseinwala, said banks’ attitude towards open banking has evolved.

“Banks have very firmly moved from viewing open banking as a compliance exercise to an opportunity to compete and innovate,” Gulamhuseinwala said. “They have worked hard to implement the [open banking] standards despite many challenges and an ambitious timescale. Yet already we have seen some impressive early signs of new technologies powered by open banking – even though we are only mid-way through our roadmap with lots more to come.”

“It is clear that there are signs of an emerging dynamic, vibrant and developing ecosystem – an ecosystem which is rapidly becoming more sophisticated and expansive in its coverage. But with the line of sight we have into the open banking ‘pipeline’, this is going to considerably ramp up in 2019… We expect the ecosystem to develop with even greater momentum and pace not least as we see greater conformance with the implementation of the standards as well as greater innovation in the market,” he said.

Gulamhuseinwala said the OBIE is focused on delivering “an enhanced user experience” from open banking in 2019.

“What we have today is, for sure, a step in the right direction but it does not yet meet the high standards of conformance and performance we expect,” Gulamhuseinwala said. “However, I am confident that 2019 – post March and the implementation of [version three] of our standards – will bring a mobile-enabled and frictionless customer journey.”

Bill Roberts, head of open banking at the CMA, said the UK is “the global pioneer in open banking”, with Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore among a list of other countries in the process of implementing similar reforms.

“We believe the adoption of open banking technology and processes (specifically, common and open standards for data, security and APIs) has the potential to revolutionise the banking market by allowing new, innovative providers of banking services into the market,” Roberts said. “Open banking has already made huge strides over the past 12 months, though it’s still in the initial stages of roll-out.”

“We’re delighted that around 200 organisations are now in the process of coming onboard – including some of the major tech companies – and we anticipate this technology will revolutionise how banking operates and people manage their money in the years ahead,” he said.

开放银行如火如荼 走出数据孤岛坐收流量红利

 为了不变成孤岛,银行不得不向开放银行迁徙,将自己嵌入到互联网场景之中。大行和股份行们纷纷投入如火如荼的开放银行建设,四处用API技术把自己和互联网公司、金融科技公司“粘”起来,扩大自己的生态圈。

  “流量是永远都不够的”

  开放银行是一种利用开放API技术实现银行与第三方之间数据共享、从而提升客户体验的平台合作模式。API(Application Programming Interface),即应用程序编程接口,可以简单理解为水管接口,把银行和商业生态衔接起来,用应用场景为银行导流。

  “通过API,互联网能形成一棵客群的大树。”一位股份制银行零售部门人士对21世纪经济报道如此感慨道。

  API的妙处就在于隐私保护。以前银行业数据共享采用的是屏幕抓取工具,第三方应用程序必须要从银行获取用户名、密码等隐私信息,才能登陆银行账户抓取数据。银行客户会担忧信息泄露,并被第三方转卖;而银行担忧自己的数据为他人所用导致道德风险。而API作为一种连接工具,商业APP只能获取银行方面提供的数据内容,但是无需登录用户的账号,即“知其然不知其所以然”,数据安全性大大提高。

  在一个开放银行体系中,存在三类主体,拥有大量用户信贷数据的持牌商业银行、希望能从银行获取数据的互联网公司和互联网公司的用户。其中商业银行与互联网公司其实存在相互竞争关系,因为头部互联网公司BATJ已经涉足金融产业。只是碍于不像银行拥有充分的资金实力以及监管部门的背书,互联网公司选择将自己的流量带来的金融业务交给银行,从中也分一杯羹。

  “流量是永远都不够的,”上述银行零售部门人士表示,“如果自己的APP上能有2000万的月活用户也就罢了,现在连三分之一都达不到,远远比不上那些互联网公司。我们开大会的时候经常反思的就是,用户为什么要打开我们的APP?”

  发现银行自身APP的局限之后,银行开始外拓边界。

  2018年被称为中国“开放银行”元年。但事实上这个概念存在已久,最早推行实施是在欧洲。

  2015年11月,欧洲议会和欧盟理事会在PSD的基础上进行修正,发布了PSD2(支付服务法案第二版),要求欧洲经济区内各国银行必须在2018年1月13日之前将客户数据以API的形式开放给第三方机构。2017年5月,西班牙对外银行(BBVA)在西班牙开放8个核心银行API,成为全球第一家以商业化运作开放API的银行,成为第一个部分实施PSD2的主要欧洲银行。任何用户都可以调用和开发他的API,根据使用服务和数据情况付费。在其官网可以看到,来自中国的合作方是支付宝。

 除了BBVA做得比较早之外,花旗、星展、汇丰等外资银行也在这两年纷纷攻城拔寨。

  在中国,其实早有开放银行的概念。中国银行早在2013年就发布了中银开放平台,开放了1600多个接口,涉及跨国金融、代收代付、移动支付,以及地图服务、网点查询、汇率牌价等服务。而很多民营银行以及互联网银行,本身就有互联网基因,也没有传统柜台,天生就是开放银行。

  但今年以来,中国传统银行们开始集中宣称向开放银行的领域进发。

  7月12日,浦发银行推出业内首个API Bank无界开放银行。之后,建行、工行、招行打破原先的业务壁垒,陆续转型开放银行。这四家银行近年来一直在大力投入IT建设改造,2015年-2017年三年中,这几家银行的包含技术在内的无形资产增长情况见图表(工行在年报中未公开)。

  银行成为“幕后玩家”

  “对于客户来说,你不需要知道我,我一直都在你身边。”一位银行电子银行部门人士如此解释开放银行的奥秘。

  21世纪经济报道获取的一份API交互流程图显示,一家规模较大的互联网银行与网络汽车租售平台是如此合作融资租赁业务的:司机提交个人信息,在汽车租售平台形成订单后,平台先过一遍自己的风控,审完信息后如果通过,提交订单给银行,银行经过自己的风控手段再过关一次,将结果反馈给汽车租售平台。之后司机交首付和保证金,平台将司机与制定车辆捆绑,汽车销售合同签约的同时并线上签订电子合同。平台审核通过合同之后,通知银行放款。银行告知平台放款金额、起息日、还款账单信息之后,平台再去人工确认放款到账。

  整个助贷流程虽然是“T+1”完成的,但其中经理和平台和银行的多次往返确认,也反映了这种API模式的敏捷度。

  建信金融科技总裁雷鸣曾对21世纪经济报道表示,如果银行不开放,那么整个业务流程效率的提高是个黑箱的过程,没办法做整体提升。但是如果打破壁垒做开放,注册、审核、对账流程部分对外开放给不同的第三方公司,那么每个阶段的效率都会有所提升。

  以上述汽车租售平台为例,对于司机来说,只知道通过汽车平台获取了一笔分期贷款,并不是很在意究竟使用的是哪家银行的服务。

  “其实客户是能够知道背后是哪家金融机构的,因为在客户与互联网公司的协议中,都会写清楚背后贷款来源是谁,客户日后也会从征信记录中看到,这家银行查过他的征信报告,但银行相对而言是隐形的,毕竟客户不需要去银行柜台,也不需要使用银行的APP。”上述电子银行部门人士称,“我们可以把行里的贷款产品完全融合在别人的APP里。”

 至于这样做会不会影响到银行的品牌知名度,上述人士表示客户忠诚度不是当前考虑的首要原则。

  至于API模式的收益如何,上述人士称,接口最大的好处是边际成本低,金融机构之间互放接口相当于是互相免费,“我把我的客户推给你,你把你的客户推给我”。

  但在微信和支付宝上放接口,是需要烧钱获取流量的。一家合作银行透露,与微信合作一年的获客成本是几千万,获取的利润测算下来是几十亿,相当划算。

  但对于电子银行部门来说,需要说服的是风控部门。接入外部数据,对风控能力是一个挑战,最终要比拼的是风险收益率。

  “大规模做的话,风控部门一开始都是不愿意的,须得洗脑他们逐步从1%的坏账开始,慢慢接受2%的坏账、5%的坏账,”上述电子银行部门人士称,“18%的利率,5%的不良怎么了,核销就是了。13个点的净利润空间已经很大了。平时你的贷款利率只有7%,那1%的坏账的确是有点高。但现在我把信贷损失减掉,还是比平时放贷的利率高多了。”

  即便是风控部门过关不了的客群,电子银行部门还有办法将这部分流量变现。如果不满意客户的资信状况,银行还与消费金融公司有数据对接的API,自己不愿意做的单交给消费金融公司,后者可能会进一步提高贷款利息,实行风险定价。

  开放银行虽好,但IT基础薄弱的中小银行难以消化。

  “中小银行自己转型的话,每年如果要投十几个亿、二十几个亿,钱都烧完了,”上述电子银行部门人士称,“金融科技是他们的灾难,而不是机会。”

无论您喜欢与否,开放银行时代已经到来

翻译自:https://thefinanser.com/2018/10/open-banking-arrived-whether-like-not.html/

原文标题:Open Banking has arrived, whether you like it or not


十年前,我提出了银行即服务的概念:任何人都可以在应用市场中找到各种第三方软件,将其导入自己的平台,建立起属于自己的、易用的的银行服务。十年后,随着越来越多的金融科技公司在云端提供即插即用代码,使银行业务变得更简单、更容易,这一愿景已经实现。我没想到的是,监管机构会推动这项服务,使之成为强制性服务。这就是开放银行业务,而开放银行不仅在英国得到发展,而且正在逐步向全球化发展。

澳大利亚引入了开放银行规则,迫使银行在2019年6月之前与受信任的第三方供应商(TPP)共享数据;墨西哥引入了金融科技法;韩国和新加坡已经实施了关于银行与第三方之间财务数据共享的规则;而在北美地区,已经有几家美国银行围绕开放式金融结构进行创新,尽管尚未出现强制要求他们这样做的当地监管要求或法律要求。

让我对市场走势感兴趣的是,一些大型金融机构在这一领域处于领先地位,比如花旗银行(Citibank)和德意志银行(Deutsche Bank)的开放API市场(open API markets),而一些机构则在抵制这种变化。我曾在英国听到一些报道称,大银行让客户的数据共享变得异常困难,因为它们的许可过程非常繁琐和耗时。同样,在PSD2下实施欧洲规则时,几家金融科技公司也发出了抗议,因为每家银行都自行对PSD2作出自己的法律解释,并据此创建各自不同的API接口标准。其结果是,由于市场上的非标准实现,任何想与欧盟银行打交道的第三方都必须为每家银行做独立的、不可复用的对接。

但随着市场向完全开放的银行平台迈进,这些初期暴露出的问题纯粹是小麻烦,而积极拥抱变化的人则看到了积极的结果,比如说英国实施开放银行业已有9个月,尽管进展缓慢,但已经取得了进展。

例如,荷兰银行荷兰国际集团(ING)在英国提供了一款名为Yolt的数字银行应用程序,这是首批全面实施第三方接入集成的应用程序之一。Yolt对接了劳埃德银行集团(Lloyds Banking Group)、苏格兰皇家银行(RBS)和汇丰银行(HSBC)的所有品牌以及挑战者Monzo和Starling等。同样,汇丰银行(HSBC)今年5月也推出了Connected Money应用程序,允许客户在一个空间内查看所有的活期账户、储蓄账户和抵押贷款账户,而不考虑提供商。通过开放银行平台,Connected Money程序可以链接到桑坦德银行(Santander)、劳埃德银行(Lloyds)和巴克莱银行(Barclays)等其他银行,这样客户就可以知道在下次发薪日之前他们还有多少钱可用。这一功能被称为“账单后余额”,它显示了一旦支付了普通账单,在发薪日之前他们的经常账户中有多少可用资金。围绕这些主题还开发了其他信息丰富的服务,这使得该行比一些挑战者银行更具挑战性。说到挑战者银行,如Metro Bank, Starling Bank,天腾和Monzo都在围绕API市场和信息服务进行开发,以区分他们的报价。

变革正在发生。开放银行实施管理局(OBIE)的数据显示,截止至2018年7月,使用开放银行api的用户达到300万,高于6月的200万和5月的72万。目前有67家受监管的api提供商,其中包括44家第三方提供商和23家存款账户提供商。这相较之前进步明显。

开放平台下游是一个由初创企业、服务提供商、银行和非银机构组成的丰富市场,每时每刻都在丰富客户的服务和知识。这将使客户受益,让他们更多地了解自己的数字金融生活方式,并提供更好、更个性化的服务。与此同时,请注意一点。如果你问客户:“你想和第三方提供商分享你的银行账户数据吗?”,他们可能会说“不”。在一次又一次的调查中,我看到这个问题被问到,通常80%的受访者对数据共享持否定态度,尤其是涉及到他们的钱的时候。但是这些调查忽略了他们所得到的回报。如果他们问的是:“你想让我们分析你的数据,帮助你增加储蓄、减少支出、总体上更明智地使用你的钱吗?”,大多数人会说“是”。

金融世界正在向一个开放的银行结构迈进,在这个结构中,如果客户允许,银行可以与受信任的第三方共享数据,这种变化的步伐几乎无法阻挡。请记住,大多数国家都开始将这些规则的不同版本作为规章来实施,如果你今天没有参与创建自己的银行的开放结构,那么你最好尽快开始。毕竟,开放的银行监管很快就会到来。做好准备,总比“意外之喜”要好。


原文正文:

Ten years ago, I was presenting the concept of Banking-as-a-Service, with the idea that I could find a wide range of plug-and-play software in a cloud-based marketplace, and build my own bank by bringing these pieces of code together into an easy-to-use banking service. A decade later, that vision has come true as more and more Fintech firms offer plug-and-play code in the cloud to make banking simpler and easier. What I didn’t anticipate is that the regulator would push this service, making it mandatory. That’s what Open Banking has become, and Open Banking is no longer just a UK thing, but it’s gone global.

Australia has introduced Open Banking rules that will force the banks to share data with trusted Third-Party Providers (TPPs) by June 2019; Mexico has introduced a Fintech Law; South Korea and Singapore have enforced rules around financial data sharing between banks and third parties; and the USA has seen several banks innovating around open financial structures, although there is no law enforcing them to do this, yet.

What intrigues me about the market movements is that some large financial players are taking a lead in this space, such as Citibank and Deutsche Bank’s open API markets, whilst some are resisting the change. I have heard several reports in the UK that the large banks have made data sharing incredibly difficult for the customer, by making the permissioning process very onerous and time-consuming. Equally, the implementation of European rules under PSD2 has seen several Fintech firms cry foul, as each bank creates its own interpretation, and therefore API interface, of the law. The result is that any third party wanting to interface with the EU banks has to write integration code for each bank, due to the non-standard implementations across the markets.

But these are purely teething troubles as the markets move towards full open banking platforms. Interestingly, those that are embracing the change are seeing positive results. For example, the UK is now nine months into its implementation of Open Banking and, although it has been slow progress, there has been progress.

For example, the Dutch bank ING offers a digital banking app in the UK called Yolt, which has been one of the first to fully implement third party access integration. The service links to all Lloyds Banking Group, RBS and HSBC brands, as well as challenger banks Monzo and Starling. Equally HSBC launched the Connected Money app in May, allowing customers to see all of their current account, savings and mortgage accounts in one space, regardless of the provider. Using Open Banking, the app links to other banks, such as Santander, Lloyds and Barclays, so that customers can see how much money they have available until their next payday. The feature is called ‘balance after bills’, and shows how much is available in their current account until payday, once regular bills have been paid. There are other information rich services being developed around these themes too, making the bank more a challenger than some of the challenger banks. Speaking of which challenger banks, like Metro Bank, Starling Bank, Tandem and Monzo are all developing around API marketplaces and information services, in order to differentiate their offers.

This is why the momentum is building. The Open Banking Implementation Authority (OBIE) shared figures that show 3 million uses of open banking APIs in July 2018, June, up from 2 million in June and just 720,000 in May. There are now 67 regulated providers of APIs, made up of 44 Third Party Providers and 23 Deposit Account Providers. Progress indeed.

Where this leads to downstream is a rich market of start-ups, service providers, banks and non-banks, enriching the services and knowledge about their customers in real-time, all of the time. This will benefit the customer, by telling them more about their digital financial lifestyles, and provide better, more personalised service. Meantime, just one word of caution. If you asked customers: ‘do you want to share your bank account data with third party providers?’, they will probably say ‘no’. In survey after survey, I see this question being asked and typically 80% of respondents have a negative view about data sharing, particularly when it comes to their money. But what these surveys miss is the benefit they get in return. If they had asked instead: ‘would you like us to analyse your data to help you save more, spend less and generally be smarter with your money?’, then most would say ‘yes’.

All in all, the world is moving to an open banking structure where banks share data with trusted third parties, if the customer gives permission, and the march of this change is nigh on unstoppable today. Bearing in mind that most countries are starting to implement versions of these rules as regulations, if you’re not engaging in creating your own banks’ open structures today, then you better start pretty soon. After all, I can pretty much guarantee that an open banking regulation is coming your way sometime soon. Better to be ready for it, than let it be a surprise you hadn’t considered.

This post was originally published byThe Banker magazine.