英国:从“开放银行”到“开放金融”

翻译自:https://www.out-law.com/en/articles/2019/january/uk-moving-from-open-banking-to-open-finance/

原文标题:UK moving from ‘open banking’ to ‘open finance’

“企业和消费者有望对他们的金融数据拥有更大的控制权,这意味着他们将有能力进入创新的新服务,因为英国将进入一个开放金融体系。”——2019年1月14日

Luke Scanlon来自Pinsent Masons,一家专门从事金融科技行业业务的律师事务所,同时也是outlaw.com背后的律师所。在英国开放银行体系通过立法的一周年后,他作出了上述预测。

开放的银行体系允许第三方连接到银行系统,访问支付数据,并利用这些信息向企业和消费者提供自己的服务。只有在满足严格的条件下,包括客户同意数据共享的情况下,以及遵守网络安全标准的情况下,才允许第三方访问。


9家主要银行被要求促进英国的开放银行业务,一个开放银行实施实体(OBIE)被要求开发技术标准,允许第三方通过Open API访问。

虽然开放银行制度于2018年1月13日正式生效,但一些银行获得了实施新框架的延期许可,而第三方合作公司在开发访问数据的软件和提供新服务方面也面临延误。


根据OBIE的数据,英国有100家受监管的开放银行服务提供商,包括67家第三方提供商和33家账户提供商。截至今年1月8日,共有17家第三方产品与服务已经上线。


Scanlon提到,(开放银行标准发布)一周年是一个很好的时机,既可以回头看银行业在实现开放银行方面既有的进展,也可以反思业界距离拥抱开放银行变革之路还有多长。根据英国《金融时报》的一份报告,由设计和技术公司Splendid Unlimited对2000名消费者进行的一项调查发现,在英国,只有四分之一的人听说过开放银行,其中只有五分之一的人理解开放银行意味着什么。

斯坎伦说:“尽管1月13日有一些象征意义,但它确实不应该被用来衡量开放银行业的成功,因为它只是众多重要日子之一。”“今年将是意义重大的一年,因为我们在理解何时适用强有力的客户认证规则、何时不适用以及如何有效实施这些规则方面取得了进展。”


“英国已经把目光投向支付数据之外,考虑到了‘开放金融’的未来,首先是养老金数据的开放。”然而,争端解决仍然是一个关键问题,需要以一致的方式解决,国际标准化也是如此。


英国竞争与市场管理局(CMA)在发现零售业务和消费者经常账户市场的竞争问题后,发布了一项命令,推动了银行业的开放改革。随后,英国的“开放银行倡议”(open banking initiative)扩大了适用范围,适用于u与欧洲PSD2相同类型的支付账户。

OBIE发言人Imran Gulamhuseinwala认为,银行对开放银行业的态度已经发生了变化。”银行已经非常坚定地将开放银行视为一种有机会进行竞争和创新的机会。尽管面临许多挑战和雄心勃勃的时间表,他们仍努力实施(开放银行)标准。然而,我们已经看到了一些由开放银行推动的新技术的令人印象深刻的早期迹象——尽管我们的路线图刚刚走到一半,未来还有很多。”


“显然,有迹象表明正在出现一个充满活力、生机勃勃和正在发展的生态系统- -这个生态系统正迅速变得更加复杂和扩大其覆盖面。但随着我们进入开放银行发展轨道的视野,这一趋势将在2019年显著加快……我们预计,这一生态系统将以更大的势头和步伐发展,尤其是随着我们看到该标准的实施获得更大的一致性,以及市场出现更大的创新,”他表示。

Gulamhuseinwala表示,OBIE的重点是在2019年提供“增强的用户体验”。
古拉姆胡塞因瓦拉说:“我们今天所取得的进展无疑是朝着正确的方向迈出了一步,但还没有达到我们所期望的高标准。”“然而,我有信心,2019年3月之后,我们的标准(第三版)的实施,将带来一个支持移动的、顺滑的客户体验旅程。”


英国金融市场管理局(CMA)开放银行业主管比尔•罗伯茨(Bill Roberts)表示,英国是“开放银行业的全球先锋”,澳大利亚、香港和新加坡等国家也在实施类似改革。
罗伯茨说:“我们相信,采用开放银行技术和流程(特别是数据、安全和应用程序接口的通用和开放标准)有潜力通过允许新的、创新的银行服务提供商进入市场来彻底改变银行市场。”“开放银行在过去12个月里已经取得了巨大进展,尽管它仍处于推出的初期阶段。”


“我们很高兴现在有大约200家机构在这方面工作,包括一些大型科技公司,我们预计这项技术将改变银行的运作方式,人们在未来的几年里将通过更便捷的方式管理他们的资金。”


原文:

UK moving from ‘open banking’ to ‘open finance’

Businesses and consumers can expect to gain greater control over how their financial data is used, meaning they will be able to access innovative new services as the UK moves to a system of ‘open finance’, an expert has said.14 Jan 2019

Luke Scanlon of Pinsent Masons, the law firm behind Out-Law.com, who specialises in fintech law, made the prediction after the first anniversary of the introduction of the UK’s ‘open banking’ regime passed on Sunday.

The open banking regime allows third parties to link into the systems of banks to access payments data and provide their own services to businesses and consumers using that information. Third party access is only enabled if strict conditions are met, including where customers have given their consent to the data sharing and if standards on cybersecurity are adhered to.

Nine major banks have been obliged to facilitate open banking in the UK, and an Open Banking Implementation Entity (OBIE) has been tasked with developing technical standards that enable third party access via open ‘application programming interfaces’ (APIs).

While the open banking regime officially took effect on 13 January 2018, some banks were given extensions to implement the new framework, while third parties have also faced delays in developing software to access the data and in delivering new services.

According to the OBIE, there are 100 regulated providers of open banking service in the UK, including 67 third party providers and 33 account providers. As of 8 January this year, 17 third parties are live with customers.

Scanlon said the first anniversary is a good time to reflect both on how far industry has come in delivering open banking as well as how far there is to go before there is widespread adoption. A survey of 2,000 consumers by design and technology company Splendid Unlimited found just one in four people in the UK have heard of open banking and just one in five of those people understand what open banking means or entails, according to a Financial Times report.

“While 13 January has some symbolism it really should not be used as a measure of success of open banking as it is just one of a number of significant dates,” Scanlon said. “This year will be a significant year as progress is made in understanding when strong customer authentication rules apply, when they will not and how those rules can be effectively implemented.”

“The UK is already looking beyond payments data with a future of ‘open finance’ in mind, in the first instance enabled by open access to pensions data. Dispute resolution, however, remains a key issue that needs to be resolved in a consistent way, as does international standardisation,” he said.

The open banking reforms were prompted by an order made by the UK’s Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) after it identified competition concerns in the retail business and consumer current account markets. The open banking initiative in the UK was subsequently broadened in scope to apply to the same types of payment accounts that the EU’s second Payment Services Directive (PSD2) applies to.

Trustee of the OBIE, Imran Gulamhuseinwala, said banks’ attitude towards open banking has evolved.

“Banks have very firmly moved from viewing open banking as a compliance exercise to an opportunity to compete and innovate,” Gulamhuseinwala said. “They have worked hard to implement the [open banking] standards despite many challenges and an ambitious timescale. Yet already we have seen some impressive early signs of new technologies powered by open banking – even though we are only mid-way through our roadmap with lots more to come.”

“It is clear that there are signs of an emerging dynamic, vibrant and developing ecosystem – an ecosystem which is rapidly becoming more sophisticated and expansive in its coverage. But with the line of sight we have into the open banking ‘pipeline’, this is going to considerably ramp up in 2019… We expect the ecosystem to develop with even greater momentum and pace not least as we see greater conformance with the implementation of the standards as well as greater innovation in the market,” he said.

Gulamhuseinwala said the OBIE is focused on delivering “an enhanced user experience” from open banking in 2019.

“What we have today is, for sure, a step in the right direction but it does not yet meet the high standards of conformance and performance we expect,” Gulamhuseinwala said. “However, I am confident that 2019 – post March and the implementation of [version three] of our standards – will bring a mobile-enabled and frictionless customer journey.”

Bill Roberts, head of open banking at the CMA, said the UK is “the global pioneer in open banking”, with Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore among a list of other countries in the process of implementing similar reforms.

“We believe the adoption of open banking technology and processes (specifically, common and open standards for data, security and APIs) has the potential to revolutionise the banking market by allowing new, innovative providers of banking services into the market,” Roberts said. “Open banking has already made huge strides over the past 12 months, though it’s still in the initial stages of roll-out.”

“We’re delighted that around 200 organisations are now in the process of coming onboard – including some of the major tech companies – and we anticipate this technology will revolutionise how banking operates and people manage their money in the years ahead,” he said.